Today there are more than a hundred types of knives of various shapes and with different purposes. Of course, you do not need to purchase everything, so many are unlikely to be useful even for a restaurant chef, let alone home use.
Let's list the most popular models:
1. Universal knife. A knife of medium size and weight with a straight blade 13-20 cm long. The Japanese santoku also belongs to this category; it differs from its European counterpart in that the tip is on the same line as the base of the blade and is not raised up. Suitable for most types of kitchen work, cutting vegetables, fruits, meat, herbs, mushrooms, and many other products. It fits comfortably in a woman's palm.
2. Chef or cook knife. A more weighty and dimensional option compared to the first type. It has a long wide blade (20-30 cm) with a well-balanced thick blunt end. Due to its impressive weight, it is convenient to cut dense and fibrous products with its help; a tapered tip is for more delicate slicing.
3. Knife for vegetable. Mini-size knife, with a blade no more than 10 cm. Convenient for peeling vegetables and fruits, cutting out cores and eyes. Together with the universal knife and the chef's knife, this blade is included in the "chef's three" - a basic set of knives recommended in every kitchen.
4. Sirloin knife. Useful for cutting meat and fish, separating the pulp from bones, and fresh slicing. The slices are thin and neatly cut. The knife is also used for filing meat delicacies.
5. Knife for Tomato. A small knife with a thin narrow blade and a finely serrated sharpening. It makes it easy to slice foods with thick skin and soft or juicy flesh - particularly tomatoes.
6. Knife for slicing. A knife with a straight blade and a medium-sized smooth cutting edge. It can easily cut sausage, cheese, vegetables, and mushrooms into thin slices thanks to its sharp sharpening and shape.
7. Knife for bread. A large knife with a long blade and a serrated edge, reminiscent of a mini saw. Able to cut bread and pastries with high quality - without crushing the crumb or crumbling the crunchy crust.
Choosing the blade material
The cutting characteristics of a kitchen knife depend primarily on the quality and properties of the blade material. It could be:
1. Stainless steel. A classic option. It is inexpensive; deals well with moisture. But there are significant drawbacks - it dulls very quickly, the cutting edge bends when it meets hard products. Frequent maintenance and sharpening are required.
2. High carbon steel. Material with high strength characteristics and excellent cutting properties. Due to the high proportion of carbon in the composition, the steel is hard and keeps sharp for a long time. World-famous Japanese knives are made of such alloys. Thought blades made of such steel require delicacy and proper care.
3. Multilayer steel. The famous Damascus knives are made from multilayer stacked steel, in which high-carbon steel is lined with layers of stainless steel. The blade is sharp and hard, while being moderately flexible and durable. Such knives are devoid of the disadvantages of stainless steel and high-carbon steel, but they are pretty expensive.
4. Ceramics. This material is made from zirconium ore, not metal. The result is a very hard blade with an unusually sharp cutting edge that does not need sharpening for a long time. However, such a knife is not suitable for cutting hard food and is susceptible to mechanical damage.
5. Titanium. It isn't easy to find completely titanium blades; steel knives with covers made of this material are more common. This design gives the knife additional practical characteristics - food does not stick to the blade, it does not darken, and does not enter into chemical reactions.
What to look for when choosing a kitchen knife is the type of handle mounting. Even if the handle is outwardly beautiful and looks original and expensive, it can quickly loosen and lose its presentability after weeks. All-metal knives are considered the most reliable, but they can be heavy, chill your hand, and slide in a damp palm. However, Japanese models are devoid of such shortcomings due to design features. The mounted type of mounting is also considered credible when the blade shank goes deep into the handle and is firmly fixed on the linings with metal rivets.